Common but Not Common: Black Swallowtail

On May 22, I saw the first Black Swallowtail of 2019 in Eliza Howell Park. Black Swallowtails are nectaring butterflies, usually seen going from flower to flower. About the only flowers available in the field on May 22 were dandelions.

20190522_165306

Black Swallowtails are regulars in the park, often seen anytime from May through September. They are regulars, frequently seen, “common” in this sense. But the reason I take their pictures so often is that they are not “common” in the sense of routine or plain or unremarkable. They get my attention repeatedly.

Like many other butterflies, they are attracted to wild bergamot.

20190524_175547

And they like clover.

20180907_143915

The “swallowtail” name comes from the two tails extending in back, similar to – or reminding someone of – the tail of the Barn Swallow. The male and female are slightly different in appearance, the females having smaller yellow/white spots but larger blue patches than the males.

These common but remarkable butterflies are often in home gardens as well as in the park. In our garden, they frequent coneflowers.

20190530_103750

Black Swallowtails do not migrate, but overwinter as chrysalis. Females lay eggs on plants in the carrot family (parsley, carrots, Queen Anne’s lace, etc.). This caterpillar is enjoying eating its way up a parsley sprig.

20190524_165017

Naturalists often refer to animals and plants that are seen frequently in a particular location as “common.” Sometimes they are even named “common” – for example, “common milkweed” and “common buckeye.” A number of years ago, while on a butterfly walk in Eliza Howell, a companion said when viewing the common buckeye butterfly: “How can anything that beautiful be called “common!”

Here is a common buckeye that was close enough for me to get a picture of last year in Eliza Howell.

20180911_135735

His words are on my mind as I reflect on the black swallowtail. Its regular presence does not diminish its distinctiveness.

Some Recent FOYs

“FOY,” meaning first-of-the-year observation, appears frequently in my notes about my visits to Eliza Howell Park at this time of the year. There is something new to be seen every day.

Here are a few selected FOYs from recent walks, each of which seems noteworthy in its own way.

1.FOY Wild Lupine.

20190521_073939

Lupine tends to be the first to bloom each year among the flowers in native wildflower field at Eliza Howell. It is starting to bloom now and I always note it both because of its attractiveness and as a herald of all that is to come.

2.FOY Baltimore Oriole Nest

20190520_190401

Photo by Kevin Murphy

The nesting Baltimore Orioles are one of the highlights of the Detroit Audubon-sponsored field trip to Eliza Howell each June. (This year it is Saturday, June 8, at 8:00 a.m. – free and open to all.)

These orioles typically arrive in the first week of May and begin building nests in the third week of the month. The picture here was taken on May 18; the female was weaving.

3.FOY Burrowing Crayfish Hole

20190521_125642

Crayfish (also called crawfish and sometimes crawdads) are gilled and clawed crustaceans, related to lobsters. Some are terrestrial, spending most of their lives away from bodies of water. They burrow down to groundwater and come up at night to eat on land. They are nocturnal and I have no pictures from Eliza Howell, but this hole is evidence that they remain present in the park. This one will probably continue to remove mud as it digs deeper, piling it up near the entrance in the shape of a chimney (or volcano).

4.FOY Common Milkweed

20190521_125259

The common milkweed is a wildflower made famous as a host plant for Monarch butterfly eggs and larvae. Right after I saw the FOY Monarch on May 15, I checked a spot where I have found early milkweeds in other years. They are up and growing and will be ready any time the Monarchs are ready to lay eggs.

5.FOY Fledgling Robins

20190521_125830

The day after I took this picture of 4 young robins filling the nest, they left it. While I have been observing a number of different bird nests this spring, this is the first that I have watched successful fledging.

6.FOY Opossum Encounter

20190520_134011

On a recent walk in the EHP woods, I met this opossum along the path. “Possums” are nocturnal mammals and this daytime encounter reminds me that they are sometimes visible during the day. Maybe someday I see a mother opossum with several young on her back. That would be a great lifetime first (designated in my notes by “L” for “lifer.”)

7.FOY Honeysuckle Blossoms

20190521_110934

The redbuds and the crabapples have already been blooming for some time, but one of my favorite blossoms, honeysuckle, is just beginning. Most of the honeysuckle in the park have white blossoms, but a few, like this one, tend toward pink. The picture was taken on May 21.

—-

This list of recent FOYs could be considerably longer, but it is time to get away from the desk and back to the park to see what is new today!

Cardinal Nest Watch: Part 2

This is a continuation of the story of a Northern Cardinal nest in Eliza Howell Park and of my observations of it. For the first part, see “Cardinal Nest Watch,” May 7.

As reported then, my last look in the nest had been on May 2, when I took a photo of 3 eggs.

20190502_090125

The brooding female was on the nest every time I checked through my binoculars during the next several days, so I did not get a close look.

On May 9, she was absent when I looked, so I approached for a brief look at what was happening. There were now 5 eggs.

20190515_152741

While all the eggs are similar in color and markings, I think that only the larger one is a cardinal egg. The smaller four appear to be Brown-headed Cowbird eggs. Cowbirds often remove one of the eggs of the “host” species when they lay one of their own.

I was not at all surprised by the presence of a cowbird egg, but I was surprised by the presence of four. As is typical of birds generally, a cowbird lays one egg a day; it usually places them in different nests. It must have returned to this nest more than once and/or there was more than one female cowbird imposing upon this particular host.

The cardinal returned a little later (after I took the picture) and continued brooding on what is now more of a cowbird nest than a cardinal nest.

20190503_111701

The next development was on May 11.

The nest is located is the wildflower field that is, by design, kept unmowed. Over the last several years, saplings and vines have emerged and have begun to threaten the future of the open flower field. Earlier this spring, I had asked the supervisor of mowing for Detroit west side parks for a one-time mowing in the spring, before the perennials were growing. He said they could do that.

I didn’t know the timing in advance, but the mowing was done on May 11, when a powerful tractor-pulled mower knocked down everything growing taller than a few inches. I happened to be there and informed the tractor driver of the location of the nest. He said he would leave that shrub standing. And he did.

20190515_153135

The mowing naturally drove the cardinal from the nest and I again took a quick picture.

20190515_152600

I was unable to visit the park May 12, 13, and 14. Sometimes a major disturbance, like the mowing of the surrounding habitat, might lead a bird to abandon the nest; I do not know whether cardinal returned to the nest after the tractor left.

When I headed to Eliza Howell on the morning of May 15, I was aware that, if all had gone well, this might be the hatching date. But all had not gone well. I found the nest empty – no birds, no eggs.

20190515_152508

The nest was empty and I don’t know what happened. Something removed the eggs (or hatchlings) and left no clear evidence of what that something was. In my search around the nest, I found only one very small piece of egg shell.

It is tempting to think that it might have been an animal predator, of which there are several possibilities in the park – including crows, blue jays, raccoons, coyotes, cats, and squirrels. But from no information it is hard to draw conclusions.

When I first started my walk on the morning of the May 15, I heard cardinals singing. This nest was not successful, but the pair will nest again this year, probably very soon, and definitely in a different location.

 

Dryad’s Saddle: Coming in May

With so much happening in the first half of May in Eliza Howell Park – early wild flowers blooming, migrating birds passing through, breeding birds arriving, toad tadpoles developing – I can forget then to mention that this is usually the best time to find dryad’s saddle. So let me give it its due attention in winter.

Dryad’s saddle is one of several kinds of bracket or shelf fungi found in the park. Bracket fungi are woody, shelf-life mushrooms that grow on the trunks of trees or on logs. This particular shelf fungus often has the shape that accounts for the “saddle” part of its name.

20190205_090011


A comment on mushroom identification: My identification of this fungus as “dryad’s saddle” is based on appearance, location, and time of year; it is not based on close examination by an expert or a professional. I strongly recommend that someone interested in collecting it for eating not rely upon pictures alone (mine or someone else’s) for identification, keeping in mind the strong toxicity of some bracket fungi.


Dryad’s saddle grows on dead trees, stumps, and logs and is also found in the wounds of living trees. When on tree trunks, the shelves are usually quite low.

20180511_094602

20180511_182644

A “dryad” is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology. Presumably, a dryad is of a size to fit on this mushroom.

The caps can be from about 3 inches to more than 12 inches wide. I placed a pen on a larger one to provide an indication of the size.

20190205_090508

They seem to appear suddenly; I am surprised by seeing them along a walking route that I took only two days before without noting anything. There may sometimes be a single saddle, but more often a small cluster.

Dryad’s saddle functions as a decomposer, an agent of wood decay in dead and injured hardwood trees.

20180509_201342

May is the month when many mushroom enthusiasts head to the woods in search of morels and I sometimes get asked if there are morels in Eliza Howell. I have not seen any morels (yet), but dryad’s saddle is, in my mind, a good alternative May find. (All the pictures here were taken in May.)

I will report when/if I see the tree nymphs!